Words Without Borders

The World through the Eyes of Writers


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Table of Contents About the Editors About the Contributors About the Translators About the Recommenders


TABLE OFCONTENTS

Introduction xi

ANDRE DUBUS I I I

Where Are You Running To? 3
MA JIAN
China
Introduced by
Jonathan Safran Foer
Translated from the Chinese by Flora Drew

Meteorite Mountain 23
CAN XUE
China
Introduced by
Ha Jin
Translated from the Chinese by Zhu Hong

Looking for the Elephant 38
JO KYUNG RAN
South Korea
Introduced by
Don Lee
Translated from the Korean by Heinz Insu Fenkl

Children of the Sky 56
SENO GUMIRA AJIDARMA
Indonesia
Introduced by
Pramoedya Ananta Toer
Translated from the Indonesian by John H.McGlynn

The Scripture Read Backward 64
PARASHURAM
Bangladesh
Introduced by
Amit Chaudhuri
Translated from the Bengali by Sukanta Chaudhuri

The Unfinished Game 81
GOLI TARAGHI
Iran
Introduced by
Francine Prose
Translated from the Persian by Zara Houshmand

The Day in Buenos Aires 111
JABBAR YUSSIN HUSSIN
Iraq
Introduced by
Alberto Manguel
Translated from the Arabic by Randa Jarrar

Two Poems 120
SANIYYA SALEH
Syria
Introduced by
Adonis
Translated from the Arabic by Issa J. Boullata

Faint Hints of Tranquillity 131
ADANIA SHIBLI
Palestine
Introduced by
Anton Shammas
Translated from the Arabic by Anton Shammas

Shards of Reality and Glass 142
HASSAN KHADER
Palestine
Introduced by
Ahdaf Soueif
Translated from the Arabic by Ahdaf Soueif

A Drowsy Haze 162
GAMAL AL-GHITANI
Egypt
Introduced by
Naguib Mahfouz
Translated from the Arabic by William Maynard Hutchins

The Uses of English 173
AKINWUMI ISOLA
Nigeria
Introduced by
Wole Soyinka
Translated from the Yoruba by Akinwumi Isola

from Provisional 184
GABRIELA ADAMESTEANU
Romania
Introduced by
Norman Manea
Translated from the Romanian by Carrie Messenger

Two Poems 200
SENADIN MUSABEGOVIC´
Bosnia
Introduced by
Aleksandar Hemon
Translated from the Bosnian by Ulvija Tanovi´c

from Experiment with India 206
GIORGIO MANGANELLI
Italy
Introduced by
Roberto Calasso
Translated from the Italian by Ann Goldstein

from The Fish of Berlin 212
ELEONORA HUMMEL
Germany
Introduced by
Günter Grass
Translated from the German by Susan Bernofsky

Seven Poems 220
BRONISLAW MAJ
Poland
Introduced by the Editors
Translated by Clare Cavanagh

from His Majesty,Almighty Death 224
MYRIAM ANISSIMOV
France
Introduced by
Cynthia Ozick
Translated from the French by C. Dickson

from October 27, 2003 237
ETEL ADNAN
France
Introduced by
Diana Abu Jaber
Translated from the French by C. Dickson with Etel Adnan

Vietnam.Thursday. 241
JOHAN HARSTAD
Norway
Introduced by
Heidi Julavits

Translated from the Norwegian by Deborah Dawkin and Erik Skuggevik
Lightweight Champ 255
JUAN VILLORO
Mexico
Introduced by
Javier Marías

Translated from the Spanish by Lisa Dillman
The Sheika's Condition 279
MARIO BELLATIN
Mexico
Introduced by
Francisco Goldman
Translated from the Spanish by Cindy Schuster

When I Was a Man 286
AMBAR PAST
Mexico
Introduced by
Elena Poniatowska
Translated from the Spanish by Samantha Schnee

from Revulsion 295
HORACIO CASTELLANOS MOYA
El Salvador
Introduced by
Roberto Bolaño
Translated from the Spanish by Beatriz Cortez

The Chareron Inheritance 311
EVELYNE TROUILLOT
Haiti
Introduced by
Edwidge Danticat
Translated from the French by Avriel Goldberger

from Kind's Silence 323
MARCELA SOLÁ
Argentina
Introduced by
Luisa Valenzuela
Translated from the Spanish by Tobias Hecht

Baked Mud 332
JUAN JOSé SAER
Argentina
Introduced by
José Saramago
Translated from the Spanish by Sergio Waisman

Swimming at Night 343
JUAN FORN
Argentina
Introduced by Ariel Dorfman
Translated from the Spanish by Marina Harss

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ABOUT THE EDITORS

Dedi Felman, Vice President of Words Without Borders, is a senior editor at Simon & Schuster. She has been a Jerusalem International Book Fair Fellow, reads several languages, and helped found The Front Table, a book review Web publication.

Alane Salierno Mason, President and Founding Editor of Words Without Borders, is a senior editor at W. W. Norton & Company. Her new translation from the Italian of Elio Vittorini's Conversations in Sicily appeared in a New Directions Classic edition.

Samantha Schnee, Vice President of Words Without Borders, is the former senior editor of Zoetrope: All-Story, a literary journal founded by Francis Ford Coppola, which she helped to launch. She translates from the Spanish.

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ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS

Ma Jian is the author of Red Dust, which won the Thomas Cook Travel Award, The Noodle Maker, and Stick Out Your Tongue. He was born in Qingdao in 1953 and moved to Hong Kong in 1986, shortly before his works were banned in China. After the handover of Hong Kong from the British to the Chinese in 1997, he moved to London, where he now lives.

Can Xue is the pen name of Deng Xiaohua. She was born in Changsha, Hunan, and still lives there. She first began writing in 1983, and her stories have appeared in various literary magazines in mainland China as well as in Hong Kong and Taiwan. She is the author of Dialogues in Paradise, Old Floating Cloud: Two Novellas, and The Embroidered Shoes.

Jo Kyung Ran earned her undergraduate degree in creative writing from Seoul Institute of the Arts and debuted in 1996 with The French Optician. That same year her novel Time for Baking Bread won the first Literary Community New Writer's Award. Her published works include Changing Season, Beautiful Knife, Your Side, My Purple Sofa, Binoculars, Glass Zoo, and Family Prayer.

Seno Gumira Ajidarma was born in Boston in 1958 while his father was a student there. He began working as a journalist at the age of nineteen, and in 1980, he graduated with a degree in cinematography from the Jakarta Institute of the Arts. Since that time he has produced a number of screenplays but has achieved much greater success as a short story writer and novelist. To date he has published twenty-eight books and has been awarded numerous national and international literary awards, most recently in 2004 for his novel Country of Twilight (Negeri Senja). A previous novel, Jazz, Perfume & the Incident, is one of a select number of contemporary Indonesian novels that have been translated and published in English.

Parashuram (Rajshekhar Basu) (1880-1960), writer, scientist, and lexicographer, was born in West Bengal. His twenty-one books, published under the pseudonym Parashuram, include the satires Shri Shri Siddheshvari Limited (1922), Gaddalika (1924), Kajjali (1927), Hanumaner Svapna (1937), and Galpakalpa (1950), the short stories included in Krsnakali (1953) and Anandibai (1957), and the essays anthologized in Laghuguru (1939), Bharater Khanij (1943), Kutirshilpa (1943), and Bichinta (1955). He also published a number of translations, including Meghdut (1943), Valmiki Ramayana (1946), Mahabharata (1949), and Hitopadesher Galpa (1950). His Bengali dictionary, Chalantika (1937), is still widely used.

Goli Taraghi was born in Tehran. She began her writing career with a collection of short stories entitled I Am Che Guevara Too in 1969. Her first novel, Winter Sleep, was published in 1973 and has been translated into English and French. Her most recent books are Scattered Memories, In Another Place, and Two Worlds. Two of her recent collections of stories, The House of Shemiran and The Three Maids, have been published in France. Taraghi lives in Tehran and Paris.

Jabbar Yussin Hussin is an Iraqi novelist and poet who left Iraq in 1976 to avoid persecution by the government of Saddam Hussein. He has published a number of books, in both French and Arabic, blending the Iraqi literary tradition with the experience of exile. He visited Iraq in 2003, after Hussein was overthrown, and shortly theareafter published his most recent book, The Reader of Baghdad.

Saniyya Saleh (1935-85) was born in Mousiaf, a city on the west coast of Syria. She studied English literature at the American Lebanese University in Beirut, Lebanon, where she met her future husband, the Syrian poet and playwright Muhammad Maghout. She wrote her last poems while losing her battle with illness. She won several awards for her poetry, including the al-Nahar and al-Hasnaa awards. Her works include the short story collection al-Ghobar (The Dust) and the poetry collections al Zaman al-Daiq (The Tight Time), Hiber al-Idaam (The Assassination Ink), Qasaed (Poems), and Zacar al-Ward (The Male Rose), the last of which was published after her death.

Adania Shibli was born in Palestine in 1974. She has been publishing since 1996 in literary magazines in the Arab world and Europe. Shibli has twice been awarded the Young Writer's Award of Palestine by the A. M. Qattan Foundation for her two novels Masaas (Touching), al-Adab, 2002, translated into French as Reflets sur un mur blanc (Actes-sud, 2004), and Kulluna Ba'eed Bethat al Miqdar 'an al Hub (We Are All Equally Far from Love), al-Adab, 2004, and is working toward a Ph.D. in media and cultural studies from the University of East London.

Hassan Khader is a writer and literary critic and editor of the literary journal al-Karmel. He has published several books on Palestinian and Israeli literature, including Hostages of Time: A Reading of Palestinian Literature and Identity of the Other, on identity crisis in Israeli literature, and an autobiography, Land of the Deer.

Gamal al-Ghitani was born in 1945 and educated in Cairo. He has written thirteen novels and six collections of short stories. He is currently editor in chief of the literary review Akhbar al-adab.

Akinwumi Isola was born in Ibadan, Nigeria, and is a retired professor of Yoruba literature at Obafemi Awolowo University. He is a fellow of the Nigerian Academy of Letters and has received the Nigerian National Order of Merit. He is the author of five plays and three novels, including Madame Tinubu, and translator of Wole Soyinka's Death and the King's Horseman and Aké: The Years of Childhood into Yoruba. He has also directed the production of many plays and films.

Gabriela Adamesteanu was born in 1942 in Targu Ocna, Romania. She has worked in literary and encyclopedic publishing and has been the editor in chief of the magazine 22. Her awards and honors include the Romanian Academy Award for Fiction (1975), the Romanian Writers Union Award (1984), a Hellman Hammett Grant, administered by Human Rights Watch (2002), and the National Award for Fiction (2004). She is the author of the novels Drumul egal al fiecarei zile (The Equal Pace of Every Day), Dimineata pierduta (Wasted Morning), Intalnirea (Meeting), and the short story collections Daruieste-ti o zi de vacanta (Give Yourself a Holiday) and Vara-primavara (Summer-Spring). Her work has been translated into French, German, Russian, and Bulgarian.

Senadin Musabegovic´ was born in 1970 in Sarajevo, Bosnia, where he lived most of his life. During the siege of Sarajevo, he was in the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina where he also worked for the BH Press. In 1995 he published his first book of poetry, Udarci tijela (Body Strikes), which included the poem "Nabrajanje" (Enumeration) for which he won the Ljiljan Award. His second book of poetry, Odrastanje domovine (The Maturing of the Homeland ) (1999), won the Planjax Prize for the best Bosnian poetry collection and the Writers Association of Bosnia-Herzegovina Award for the best book published in Bosnia. In 2004 he published his most recent book, Lopata (The Heavenly Sphere). He holds an M.A. in political philosophy from the University of Siena and defended doctoral thesis, "War-Reconstruction of the Totalitarian Body" at the European Institute, Florence, in 2004.

Giorgio Manganelli (1922-90) first emerged as a literary innovator in 1964, both as the author of the experimental novel Hilarotragoedia, a phenomenological monologue, and as a member of Gruppo 63 (Group 63), a school of literature that stressed form over content. He also contributed to the avant-garde journals Grammatica (Grammar) and Quindici (Fifteen). In 1967 he published La letteratura come menzogna (Literature as a Lie), a collection of essays that characterized popular literature as nonsocial, artificial, and nonphilosophical. Manganelli's other essay collections include Lunario dell'orfano sannita (Almanac of the Sannite Orphan; 1973), Angosce di stile (Anguish of Style; 1981), and Laboriose inezie (Arduous Trifles; 1986). Among his other works are Agli dèi ulteriori (To Farther Gods; 1972), A e B (A and B; 1975), Centuria (1979), and Rumori o voci (Noises or Voices; 1987).

Eleonora Hummel was born in 1970 in Kazakhstan. In 1980 her family moved to the Northern Caucasus; two years later they moved to Dresden. She has published fiction and has been a frequent contributor to magazines and journals. In 2001 she received a grant to participate in the Fifth Klagenfurt "literary course" associated with the prestigious Ingeborg Bachmann Prize, and in 2002 was awarded a Baden- Württemberg Russian German Culture Prize for Young Artists. In 2003 she received a grant and residency from the Schoeppingen Artists' Colony. Eleonora Hummel works as a multilingual secretary and lives with her husband and two children in Dresden.

Born in 1953, Bronisl⁄aw Maj is the author of seven volumes of poetry, which have won him prestigious literary prizes, a reputation as one of the finest poets of his generation, and a place in many anthologies of contemporary poetry published both in Poland and abroad. Maj is also the author of a book about Tadeusz Gajcy, a poet who died during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944. He writes newspaper columns and has edited the literary quarterly Na Gl⁄bs for many years. He lives in Kraków and teaches at the Jagiellonian University and the School of Creative Writing.

Myriam Anissimov was born in 1943 in a refugee camp in Sierre, Switzerland. A journalist and literary critic, she published her first novel, Comment va Rachel? in 1973, and has published eight other novels since then. Her biography of Primo Levi, Primo Levi: Tragedy of an Optimist (1996), has been translated into nine languages. She is also the author of the biography Romain Gary the Chameleon.

Etel Adnan is an Arab American poet, essayist, and painter. She came to the United States in 1955 as a philosophy student. She taught philosophy and joined the movement of American poets against the war in Vietnam. She writes mainly in English though sometimes in French, the language she first learned in Beirut's French schools. She lives in California and Paris.

Johan Harstad was born in 1979 and debuted in 2001 with a collection of texts entitled From Here On You Just Get Older. In 2002 he published Ambulance, a collection of short stories, and in 2005 he published his first novel, Buzz Aldvin, Where Did You Go in All the Confusion, which is currently being translated into Swedish, Danish, Finnish, German, Dutch, French, Italian, Russian, and Faroese. His prizes and awards include the 2003 Bjørnson grant and a 2000 grant from Gyldendal. He is currently at work on a play called Washingtin.

Juan Villoro, born in Mexico City in 1956, is the author of the novels El testigo, El disparo de argón, and Materia dispuesta. He has been honored with the Herralde Prize for his novel El testigo (2004), the Xavier Villaurrutia Award for his short story collection La casa pierde (House Loses), the Mazatlán Award for his collection of essays entitled Efectos personales (Personal Effects) (2001), and the International Board on Books for the Young Award for the children's novel El profesor Zíper y la fabulosa guitarra eléctrica. He has been a professor at the UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico) in Mexico City, Yale University, and the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona. He has translated many books into Spanish including Memoirs of an Anti-Semite, by Gregor von Rezzori, and A Tree of Night, by Truman Capote, and he is also the translator of Georg Christoph Lichtenberg's Aphorisms. For three years he was the director of La Jornada Semanal, the weekly cultural supplement of the Mexican newspaper La Jornada, and his literary writing and reportage have appeared in La Jornada, Reforma, El País, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Granta, Proceso, and Letras Libres, among other publications.

Mario Bellatin was born in Mexico. His novel, Flores (Flowers) (1994) won the Xavier Villaurrutia Prize in 2000. His work has been translated into German, French, and English. His other books include: Shiki Nagaoka: Una nariz de ficción (Pinocchio Tales), Perros Heroes (Heroic Dogs), Lecciones para una liebre muerta (Lessons for a Dead Hare), and Salon de belleza (Beauty Salon).

Ambar Past, born in North Carolina, has lived in San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, since 1974. She is a Mexican citizen and writes in Spanish and Tzotzil. She coordinates a papermaking and publishing cooperative, Taller Leñateros, and edits the poetry magazine Jícara. Her latest publishing project is Incantations by Mayan Women.

Horacio Castellanos Moya, born in 1957 in El Salvador, is one of the most important Central American writers alive today. He has published eight novels, some of which have been translated into French, German, Italian, and Portuguese; he has published five short story collections. He worked many years as a journalist in Mexico City, Guatemala, and San Salvador. He has also lived in Canada, Costa Rica, Spain, and, from 2004 to 2006, in Frankfurt in a program supported by the Frankfurt International Book Fair. His first novel to appear in English, Senselessness, will be published by New Directions in 2007.

Born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Evelyne Trouillot lives and works in her country as a university professor of French and pedagogy. She divides most of her time between writing and teaching. Since her first book of short stories, La chambre interdite (1996), Trouillot has published two other books of short stories, tales and stories for children, two books of poems (in French and Creole), and an essay on human rights and childhood in Haiti. Her first novel, Rosalie l'infâme (2003), received the Prix Soroptimist de la Romancière francophone for 2004 and second place for the Prix Carbet des Lycéens also in 2004. In 2005, her play Le bleu de l'ile received first prize for the Prix Beaumarchais de la Caraibe and was read at the Théâtre du Rond-Point in Paris in April 2005. Her most recent books are a collection of Creole poetry, Plidetwal, and her second novel, L'oeil-totem.

The Argentine writer and translator Marcela Solá studied philosophy at the Universidad Católica Argentina, Santa María de los Buenos Aires. Her publications include the novel El silencio de Kind (Kind's Silence), published by Planeta in 1999 and short-listed for the Planeta Prize; a volume of poetry, Acta de Defunción (Act of Death; 1994), winner of the Poesía Arcano Prize; and three books of short stories, Los condenados visten de blanco (The Condemned Wore White; 1971), Mis propios ojos no dan abasto (My Eyes Are Not Enough; 1976), and Manual de Situaciones Imposibles (Manual for Impossible Situations; 1990). She also edited Qué quieren las mujeres (What Women Want), published by Lumen in 1994. She has taught at the University of Laval, in Quebec, and currently teaches Argentine literature in the Multicultural Program of the Universidad de Belgrano, in Buenos Aires. In 1984 she won a Fulbright scholarship to join the International Writers Workshop at the University of Iowa.

Juan José Saer was born in Serodino, Argentina, in 1937, the son of Arab immigrants. He taught at the Santa Fe Instituto de Cinematografía, then moved to Paris in 1968 and taught literature at the University of Rennes until his retirement in 2002. In 1987 he was awarded the prestigious Spanish literary prize, the Premio Nadal, for his novel La ocasión (The Opportunity). In 2003 he was awarded the Prix France Culture and in 2004 the prestigious Prize of the Unión Latina. He died in June 2005 in Paris. Saer's extensive literary oeuvre, which includes about twenty novels and collections of stories, is regarded as one of the most important in contemporary Argentine literature since that of Jorge Luis Borges. Many of his works have been translated into multiple languages.

Juan Forn was born in Buenos Aires in 1959. After publishing his first and only book of poetry in 1979, he traveled to Europe, and upon his return to Buenos Aires he began working in the publishing business as a translator, reader, and editor. Forn worked as an associate editor for Planeta and as the director of the literary supplement of the Argentine newspaper Página 12. In 1987 he published his first novel, Corazones cautivos más arriba (Up with Imprisoned Hearts). His second book, Nodar de noche (Swimming at Night), was published in 1991 and is being translated into English. Forn was named a Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson Center (Washington, D.C.). He also received a grant from the Fondo Nacional de las Artes (Buenos Aires). His other books include Puras mentiras (Total Lies; 2001) and La tierra elegida (The Chosen Land; 2005).

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ABOUT THE RECOMMENDERS

Diana Abu Jaber is the author of Crescent, which was awarded the 2004 PEN Center USA Award for Literary Fiction and was named one of the twenty best novels of 2003 by the Christian Science Monitor. Her memoir, The Language of Baklava, was included in Best American Food Writing and her book Arabian Jazz, which won the 1994 Oregon Book Award, was nominated for the PEN/Faulkner Award. Her novel, Origin, will be published in June 2007. She teaches at Portland State University and divides her time between Portland and Miami.

Adonis (Ali Ahmad Said) has written poetry, criticism, translations, and edited anthologies for fifty years. He has won numerous international poetry awards and has been mentioned as a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Roberto Bolaño was born in Santiago, Chile, in 1953, and moved to Mexico City with his family in 1968. He went back to Chile in 1973, just a month before Pinochet seized power, and was arrested. After his release he returned to Mexico before moving to Paris and then Barcelona. He wrote ten novels, including By Night in Chile and Distant Star, and two collections of short stories, including Last Evenings on Earth, as well as poetry before he died at the age of fifty in 2003.

Roberto Calasso was born in Florence in 1941. In the early 1980s, Calasso began a multivolume work-in-progress that so far includes The Ruin of Kasch, The Marriage of Cadmus and Harmony, Ka, K, and Il rosa Tiepolo. He is also the author of L'impuro folle and essay collections The Forty-Nine Steps, Literature and the Gods, and La follia che viene dalle Ninfe. He is the publisher of Edizioni Adelphi.

Amit Chaudhuri was born in Calcutta, India, in 1962, and brought up in Bombay. He has contributed fiction, poetry, and reviews to numerous publications including the Guardian, the London Review of Books, the Times Literary Supplement, the New Yorker, and Granta magazine. His books include A Strange and Sublime Address (1991), Afternoon Raag (1993), Freedom Song (1998), A New World (2000), Real Time (2002), D. H. Lawrence and "Difference": Postcoloniality and the Poetry of the Present (2003), and St. Cyril Road and Other Poems (2005), and he is the editor of The Picador Book of Modern Indian Literature (2001). He lives in Calcutta and Oxford.

Edwidge Danticat was born in Haiti and moved to the United States when she was twelve. She is the author of several books, including Breath, Eyes, Memory; Krik? Krak!; The Farming of Bones; and The Dew Breaker. She is also the editor of The Butterfly's Way: Voices from the Haitian Diaspora in the United States and The Beacon Best of 2000: Great Writing by Men and Women of All Colors and Cultures.

Ariel Dorfman, a Chilean-American writer of Argentine origin, holds the Walter Hines Page Chair at Duke University. His books, written both in Spanish and English, have been translated into more than forty languages and his plays staged in over one hundred countries. He has received numerous international awards, including the Laurence Olivier Award (for "Death and the Maiden," which was made into a feature film by Roman Polanski). Among his novels are Widows, Konfidenz, The Nanny and the Iceberg, and Blake's Therapy. His latest works are Desert Memories (Lowell Thomas Award for Best Travel Book) and the plays Purgatorio, The Other Side, and Speak Truth to Power: Voices from Beyond the Dark. He has also recently published a novel, Burning City, with his son Joaquín, and a collection of essays, journalism, and poetry in Other Septembers, Many Americas. He contributes regularly to major newspapers worldwide.

Andre Dubus III is the author of a collection of short fiction, The Cage Keeper and Other Stories, and the novels Bluesman and House of Sand and Fog. He has been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, the National Magazine Award for Fiction, and the Pushcart Prize. An Academy Award-nominated motion picture, his novel House of Sand and Fog was a finalist for the National Book Award in Fiction and was published in over thirty countries.

Jonathan Safran Foer is the author of Everything Is Illuminated, winner of numerous prizes, including the Guardian First Book Prize, the National Jewish Book Award, and the New York Public Library Young Lions Award, and of Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close. His work has been translated into thirty languages. He lives in Brooklyn.

Francisco Goldman is the author of three novels: The Long Night of White Chickens, which won the Sue Kaufman Award for First Fiction from the American Academy of Arts and Letters and was a finalist for the PEN/Faulkner Award; The Ordinary Seamen, which was a finalist for the International IMPAC Dublin Fiction Prize, the Los Angeles Times Book Prize, and the PEN/Faulkner Award; and The Divine Husband, published in 2005. His novels have been published in ten languages. In 2007, he will publish The Art of Political Murder: Who Didn't Kill the Bishop, his nonfiction book on the Bishop Juan Gerardi murder case in Guatemala. He lives in Brooklyn and Mexico City with his wife, Aura.

Günter Grass, born in 1927 in Danzig, Germany (now Gdansk, Poland), studied art in Düsseldorf and Berlin after a period of military service and subsequent captivity by American forces. From 1956 to 1960, he worked as a graphic artist, writer, and sculptor in Paris before his novel The Tin Drum brought him international acclaim. Grass moved to West Berlin and became active in politics, ghostwriting for Willy Brandt, the Social Democrat leader, who was elected chancellor in 1969. Grass has published many books, including Cat and Mouse, The Flounder, Crabwalk, and Peeling the Onion, and has often produced the graphic art for them himself. His awards include the Gruppe 47 Prize (1958), the Büchner Prize (1965), Fontane Prize (1968), Mondello Prize (1977), the Alexander-Majkowski Medal, Gdansk (1979), Antonio Feltrinelli Prize (1982), and the Nobel Prize in Literature (1999)

Aleksandar Hemon was born in Sarajevo in 1964. He moved to Chicago with only a basic command of English in 1992 and began writing in English in 1995. His books include the short story collection The Question of Bruno (2001) and the novel Nowhere Man (2002).

Ha Jin was born in China in 1956. He has published three collections of poetry, Between Silences, Wreckage, and Facing Shadows, and three collections of short fiction, The Bridegroom, Ocean of Words, which received the PEN/Hemingway Award, and Under the Red Flag, which won the Flannery O'Connor Award. His novel Waiting won the National Book Award for fiction as well as the PEN/Faulkner Award in 1999. In 2004, he published War Trash, which also won the PEN/Faulkner Award. He has written two other novels, In the Pond and The Crazed. He lives in the Boston area and is a professor of English at Boston University.

Heidi Julavits is the author of three novels. Her first novel, The Mineral Palace, was a finalist for the Young Lions Fiction Award and a Los Angeles Times Notable Book of 2000. Her second novel, The Effect of Living Backwards, was a New York Times Notable Book of 2003, and The Uses of Enchantment: A Novel was published by Doubleday in fall 2006. Her fiction has appeared in The Best American Short Stories 1999, Esquire, Zoetrope, McSweeney's, and Time, among others. Her nonfiction has appeared in Harper's Bazaar, Glamour, Time, and the New York Times Book Review. She is a founding coeditor of The Believer (www.believermag.com) a monthly review that covers books, art, music, philosophers, and politics.

Don Lee is a third-generation Korean American. He is the author of the novel Country of Origin, which won an American Book Award, the Edgar Award for Best First Novel, and a Mixed Media Watch Image Award for Outstanding Fiction, and the story collection Yellow, which won the Sue Kaufman Prize for First Fiction from the American Academy of Arts and Letters and the Members Choice Award from the Asian American Writers' Workshop. He lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and is the editor of the literary journal Ploughshares at Emerson College in Boston.

Naguib Mahfouz, who in 1988 became the Arab world's first Nobel laureate in literature, authored roughly sixty books covering virtually every style and genre of fiction. He also produced numerous movie scripts and scenarios, including for many of the top films in Arab cinema history. In 1957, he won Egypt's highest plaudit in this field, the State Prize for Literature, for his legendary Cairo Trilogy (Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, and Sugar Street). In 1992, he was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters as an honorary member, and he has received countless other awards internationally. In February 2005, he was named in the short list for the first Man Booker International Prize for fiction. He died in 2006 at the age of ninety-four.

Norman Manea left Romania in 1986 and after a year in West Berlin came to the United States. Since then he has published several acclaimed books in the United States and has been translated into fifteen other languages. He is the recipient of MacArthur and Guggenheim awards, the National Jewish Book Award, and the Literary Lion Medal of the New York Public Library. His last book, The Hooligan's Return, has been published in English, German, Italian, Spanish, French, and Dutch. Manea is Francis Flournoy Professor of European Culture and writer in residence at Bard College. He lives with his wife in New York City.

Alberto Manguel is an internationally acclaimed anthologist, translator, essayist, novelist, and editor, and is the author of several award-winning books, including A Dictionary of Imaginary Places and A History of Reading. He was born in Buenos Aires, became a Canadian citizen in 1982, and now lives in France, where he was named Officier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.

Javier Marías was born in Madrid in 1951 and published his first novel at the age of nineteen. He is the author of several novels, the more recent ones of which have been translated into many languages. Englishlanguage translations include A Heart So White (1995), winner of the 1997 International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award; All Souls (1996); Tomorrow in the Battle Think on Me (1998); When I Was Mortal (1999); Dark Back of Time (2001); Your Face Tomorrow: Fever and Spear (2005); Voyage Along the Horizon (2006); and Written Lives (2006). He is also a highly praised translator into Spanish of British authors including Conrad, Stevenson, Hardy, and Laurence Sterne. He has held academic posts in Spain, the United States (where he was a visiting professor at Wellesley College), and in Britain, as lecturer in Spanish literature at Oxford University.

Czeslaw Milosz was the winner of the Neustadt International Prize for Literature and the 1980 Nobel Prize in Literature. His last book was To Begin Where I Am (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001). Milosz is the author of numerous works, many of which have been translated into English, including Beginning with My Streets (1992), The Year of the Hunter (1994), Road-side Dog (1998), and Milosz's ABC's (2001). He died in 2004 at the age of ninety-three.

Cynthia Ozick, a recipient of numerous awards, is a novelist and essayist. Her novel The Puttermesser Papers (1997) was a finalist for the National Book Award, and her essay collection, Quarrel and Quandary, won the 2001 National Book Critics Circle Award for Nonfiction. Her most recent novel Heir to the Glimmering World (2004) was listed as a candidate for the Man Booker International Award. Her newest essay collection is The Din in the Head (2006).

Elena Poniatowska is a writer, journalist, and professor. She was born in Paris in 1932, but as a child moved to Mexico with her family. Her works include Hasta no verte Jesús mio; Tinisima, a biography of Tina Modotti, the Italian photographer; Massacre in Mexico; Paseo de la Reforma; and Cartas de Alvaro Mutis. Poniatowska is the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including a Guggenheim Fellowship and an Emeritus Fellowship from Mexico's National Council of Culture and Arts. In 1979 she became the first woman to win the Mexican national award for journalism. Her writing has been translated into numerous languages including English, French, Italian, German, Danish, and Dutch. Elena Poniatowska currently lives in Mexico.

Francine Prose is the author of fourteen books of fiction, including A Changed Man. Her most recent book is Reading Like a Writer: A Guide for People Who Love Books and for Those Who Want to Write Them. Francine Prose has received numerous grants and awards, including Guggenheim and Fulbright fellowships, and was a Director's Fellow at the Center for Scholars and Writers at the New York Public Library. She lives in New York City.

José Saramago was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1998. His books include Blindness, The Double, and Seeing.

Anton Shammas is a Palestinian writer and translator of Arabic, Hebrew, and English, born in northern Palestine in 1950. His publications include a novel, two collections of poems, and a book for children in Hebrew; a collection of poems in Arabic; and many articles, essays, and translations. His novel Arabesques (Hebrew: Tel Aviv, 1986) was chosen by the New York Times Book Review upon its American publication as one of the best seven fiction works of 1988, and has since been translated into eight languages. He is a professor of comparative literature and Near Eastern studies at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where he has lived since 1987.

Ahdaf Soueif is the author of the bestselling The Map of Love, which was short-listed for the Booker Prize for Fiction in 1999. Ms. Soueif is also a political and cultural commentator. A collection of her essays, Mezzaterra: Fragments from the Common Ground, was published in 2004. Her translation (from Arabic to English) of Mourid Barghouti's I Saw Ramallah also came out in 2004. She lives with her children in London and Cairo.

Wole Soyinka was born in Nigeria in 1934. During the civil war in Nigeria, Soyinka appealed in an article for ceasefire. For this he was arrested in 1967, accused of conspiring with the Biafra rebels, and held as a political prisoner for twenty-two months, until 1969. Soyinka has published about twenty works, including drama, novels, and poetry. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1986.

Wislawa Szymborska was born in 1923 in Kraków, Poland, where she lives today. An editor, translator, poet, and columnist, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1996.

Pramoedya Ananta Toer (1925-2006) was Indonesia's most celebrated writer, with over thirty works of fiction published in more than thirty countries. Almost all his work was banned in Indonesia, where he spent many years in jail under three successive rulers. Pramoedya wrote eight of his novels, including The Buru Quartet, during his ten-year stay at the infamous Buru Island labor camp, where he was sent after four years of detention at various other jails. He received various awards, including France's Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres and the Japanese Fukuoka Asian Culture Grand Prize, both in 2000. He also received the 1995 Ramon Magsasay Award for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Communication Arts and, in 1992, the PEN Freedom to Write Award.

Luisa Valenzuela was born in Argentina in 1938. Her books in English include The Lizard's Tail (1983), Symmetries (1998), Black Novel with Argentines (2002), and Clara (new translation, 2005).

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ABOUT THE TRANSLATORS

Nabila Akl is the promotion manager for the American University Cairo Press, where Chip Rossetti also works as a senior acquisitions editor. Previously, Chip Rossetti worked in U.S. book publishing as an acquiring editor, and he has been a guest editor and translator for Words Without Borders.

Born in Jerusalem, Palestine, Issa J. Boullata taught at Hartford Seminary in Connecticut from 1968 to 1975, then joined McGill University in Montreal in 1975 as professor of Arabic literature and language at its Institute of Islamic Studies. He retired from McGill in 2004. His publications include Outlines of Romanticism in Modern Arabic Poetry (1960) and Badr Shakir al-Sayyab: His Life and Poetry (1971), both in Arabic; Modern Arab Poets, 1950-1975 (1976), an anthology in English translation; Trends and Issues in Contemporary Arab Thought (1990); and, as editor, Critical Perspectives on Modern Arabic Literature (1980) and Tradition and Modernity in Arabic Literature (1997, with Terri DeYoung). He has published more than eighty articles and more than two hundred and fifty book reviews in scholarly journals, has contributed many encyclopedia entries on Arabic literarure and Islam, and has translated into English many poems from Arabic. He is currently a contributing editor of Banipal, a London magazine of modern Arabic literature in English. Among his translations into English are Ahmad Amin's My Life (1978); Emily Nasrallah's Flight Against Time (1987, 1997); Jabra Ibrahim Jabra's The First Well: A Bethlehem Boyhood (1995) and Princesses' Street: Baghdad Memories (2005); Mohamed Berrada's The Game of Forgetting (1996) and Fugitive Light (2002); and Ghada Samman's The Square Moon (1998).

Susan Bernofsky is a freelance writer and translator, most recently of Hermann Hesse's classic Siddhartha for Modern Library (2006). She won the 2006 Helen and Kurt Wolff Translator's Prize for her translation of Jenny Erpenbeck's The Old Child and Other Stories (New Directions, 2005). She lives with her husband in Boiceville, New York, and is at work on a biography of Robert Walser as well as on a translation of his early novel The Assistant for New Directions.

Clare Cavanagh is an associate professor of Slavic and Gender Studies at Northwestern University. With Stanislaw Baranczak, she translated Wisl/awa Szymborska's View with a Grain of Sand and Poems New and Collected; she is also the translator of Adam Zagajewski's Mysticism for Beginners, Another Beauty, and Without End: New and Selected Poems. Cavanagh's work has also appeared in the New York Times Book Review, the New Republic, the New Yorker, the New York Review of Books, and other periodicals. She has received the PMLA William Riley Parker Prize and a Guggenheim grant for her work on Russian and Polish poetry. She is currently at work on Czeslaw Milosz: A Biography, forthcoming from Farrar, Straus Giroux.

Sukanta Chaudhuri is a professor of English at Jadavpur University, Kolkata (Calcutta), India. He is the general editor of the Oxford Rabindranath Tagore Translations Series. He is the author of Infirm Glory: Shakespeare and the Renaissance Image of Man, Renaissance Pastoral and its English Developments, and Translation and Understanding, and the editor of Calcutta: The Living City. He is the translator of The Select Nonsense of Sukumar Ray and the editor and translator of several volumes of modern Bengali poetry.

Beatriz Cortez holds a Ph.D. in Latin American literature from Arizona State University. She specializes in contemporary Central American literature and cultural studies. Born in El Salvador, she has lived in the United States since 1989. Currently, she is associate professor and program coordinator at the Central American Studies Program at California State University, Northridge. She is the author of a number of articles on contemporary Central American postwar fiction, the construction of gender, the experience of violence, urban space, and the formation of identity. She has also published translations of literary texts, art-related materials, and film subtitles.

Deborah Dawkin and Erik Skuggevik have worked as a team on a variety of literary translations and dramatized works, including the poetry of Inger Hagerup for performances in London (1995) and, most recently, Fatso, a novel by Lars Ramslie. Deborah Dawkin was born in London in 1961, trained as an actress, and worked in theater for ten years. As well as working as a director and teacher, she has written creatively and dramatized for the stage. She is currently pursuing an M.A. in Social and Cultural History. Erik Skuggevik was born in Oslo in 1966 and lectures in Translation Studies for B.A. and M.A. students at the universities of Surrey and Westminster. He also works regularly subtitling films. He is currently working on his Ph.D. in Translation and Culture.

C. Dickson is the translator of Shams Nadir's The Astrolabe of the Sea, Mohamed Dib's Savage Night, J. M. G. Le Clézio's Round and Other Cold Hard Facts and Wandering Star, and Gisèle Pineau's Macadam Dreams and Devil's Dance. Her prizes and awards include the ALTA Fellowship and scholarships to the Collège International des Traducteurs Littéraires. She lived for five years in West Africa and now lives in France.

Lisa Dillman teaches at Emory University, in Atlanta, Georgia, and translates from Spanish and Catalan. Her literary translations include stories from the book Spain: A Literary Traveler's Companion, which she also coedited with Peter Bush (2003), Eugenio Cambaceres's 1881 Argentine novel Pot Pourri: Whistlings of a Vagabond (2003), and Gioconda Belli's The Scroll of Seduction (2006). She has just finished translating Zig Zag, a thriller by José Carlos Somoza, which is forthcoming from Rayo/HarperCollins.

Flora Drew is the translator of Ma Jian's Stick Out Your Tongue, The Noodle Maker, and Red Dust.

Heinz Insu Fenkl was born in Inchon, Korea, in 1960. From 1984 to 1985, he was the recipient of a Fulbright Fellowship to Korea in language and literature. While in Korea, he researched oral folktales and shamanism at his mother's native village and studied literary translation in Seoul under the auspices of the Korean Culture and Arts Foundation. He has taught at Sarah Lawrence, Vassar, Bard, and the State University of New York at New Paltz, where he directs the Interstitial Studies Institute. His first book, the autobiographical novel Memories of My Ghost Brother, was a PEN/Hemingway finalist in 1997 and a Barnes & Noble "Discover Great New Writers" Book in 1996. Since then he has been coeditor of the two major anthologies of Korean American writing: Kori: The Beacon Anthology of Korean American Fiction and Century of the Tiger: 100 Years of Korean American Immigration. He is currently completing a novel on the life of the Shakyamuni Buddha.

Avriel Goldberger, an award-winning scholar and translator, was named a Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government in 1988. She is the translator of Germaine de Staël's novels Corinne, Delphine, her memoir Ten Years of Exile, and also of Emile Carle's ALife of Her Own.

Ann Goldstein has translated works by, among others, Roberto Calasso, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Alessandro Baricco, and Elena Ferrante. She has been the recipient of the PEN Renato Poggioli Prize and a translation award from the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Marina Harss studied comparative literature and translation at Harvard and New York University. Her translations include Pier Paolo Pasolini's Stories from the City of God and For Solo Violin. Her translations have also appeared in Words Without Borders, The Latin American Review, Flash Art International, Bomb, and Brooklyn Rail. She is a researcher and dance writer at the New Yorker, and her translation of Alberto Moravia's Conjugal Love will be published in 2007 by Other Press.

Tobias Hecht's first book, At Home in the Street, won the 2002 Margaret Mead Award. His most recent book is After Life: An Ethnographic Novel. He has won research and writing awards from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the H. F. Guggenheim Foundation. His translation of a collection of short stories by Cristina Peri Rossi is entitled The Museum of Useless Efforts.

Zhu Hong's translations include Su Xiaokang's Memoir of Misfortune (2000); Liu Binyan's A Higher Kind of Loyalty (1989); The Chinese Western (1988; reissued in the U.K. under the title Spring of Bitter Waters); and The Serenity of Whiteness (1991). She is the editor and co-translator of The Stubborn Porridge (1994), Festival of Flowers (1995), and A Frolic in the Snow (2002). Her translations of short stories from the Chinese have appeared in the Antioch Review, the Chicago Review, the Paris Review, Words Without Borders, and the Iowa Review.

Zara Houshmand is an Iranian American writer and theater artist. She has studied Balinese shadow puppetry and Tibetan performing arts, and her plays have been produced in Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York, and the Spoleto Festival. She was awarded the first commissioning grant from the National Theatre Translation Fund for her work on Bijan Mofid's plays. Her poetry, essays, and translations from Rumi are featured in the Internet magazine Iranian.com. She is also a pioneer in the development of virtual reality as an art form; her installation Beyond Manzanar has been exhibited internationally and is now in the permanent collection of the San Jose Museum of Art. As editor for the Mind and Life Institute, she has been responsible for several books representing a long-term dialogue between Buddhism and Western science.

William Maynard Hutchins was the principal translator of The Cairo Trilogy by Naguib Mahfouz. His translation of the desert novel Anubis, by the Libyan Tuareg author Ibrahim al-Koni, was published in 2005. He teaches at Appalachian State University of North Carolina.

Akinwumi Isola was born in Ibadan, Nigeria, and is a retired professor of Yoruba literature at Obafemi Awolowo University. He is a fellow of the Nigerian Academy of Letters and has received the Nigerian National Order of Merit. He is the author of five plays and three novels, including Madame Tinubu, and translator of Wole Soyinka's Death and the King's Horseman and Aké: The Years of Childhood into Yoruba. He has also directed the production of many plays and films.

Randa Jarrar's award-winning fiction has appeared in Ploughshares and has been widely anthologized. Her debut novel is forthcoming from Other Press.

Clifford E. Landers has translated from Brazilian Portuguese novels by Rubem Fonseca, Jorge Amado, João Ubaldo Ribeiro, Patrícia Melo, Jô Soares, Chico Buarque, Marcos Rey, Paulo Coelho, and José de Alencar and shorter fiction by Lima Barreto, Rachel de Queiroz, Osman Lins, and Moacyr Scliar. His translation of Pedro Rosa Mendes's Bay of Tigers: An African Odyssey was published by Harcourt. He received the Mario Ferreira Award in 1999 and a Prose Translation grant from the National Endowment for the Arts for 2004. His Literary Translation: A Practical Guide was published by Multilingual Matters Ltd. in 2001. A professor emeritus at New Jersey City University, he now lives in Naples, Florida.

John H. McGlynn, originally from Wisconsin, is a long-term resident of Jakarta, Indonesia. He is the translator of numerous Indonesian literary works and the editor of more than sixty books on Indonesian language, literature, and culture. He has also produced twenty-four documentary films on Indonesian writers.

Carrie Messenger graduated from the Iowa Writers' Workshop, was a Peace Corps volunteer in the Republic of Moldova, and lived in Romania on a Fulbright research grant. Her translations have recently appeared in International Poetry Review, the Literary Review, Rhino, and Salmagundi. Her fiction has appeared in Blue Mesa Review and Beloit Fiction Journal.

Samantha Schnee is an editor at Words Without Borders. She is the former senior editor of Zoetrope: All-Story, a literary journal founded by Francis Ford Coppola that won the 2001 National Magazine Award for fiction. She holds an M.F.A. from the New School and translates from the Spanish.

Cindy Schuster is cotranslator of Cubana: Contemporary Fiction by Cuban Women (1998) and La vida a la carta: Poemas selectas (Life à la Carte: Selected Poems by Raúl Henao) (1998). Her translations of Latin American writers have been published in various anthologies and journals, including The Dedalus Book of Surrealism (1994), Words Without Borders, and the American Voice. Her poetry has appeared in journals including Carolina Quarterly, Exquisite Corpse, and the Caribbean Writer. She was recently awarded a translation fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts for her current work on a collection of short stories by Rodolfo Walsh.

Anton Shammas is a Palestinian writer and translator of Arabic, Hebrew, and English, born in northern Palestine in 1950. His publications include a novel, two collections of poems, and a book for children in Hebrew; a collection of poems in Arabic; and many articles, essays, and translations. His novel Arabesques (Hebrew: Tel Aviv, 1986) was chosen by the New York Times Book Review upon its American publication as one of the best seven fiction works of 1988, and has since been translated into eight languages. He is a professor of comparative literature and Near Eastern studies at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where he has lived since 1987.

Ahdaf Soueif is the author of the bestselling The Map of Love, which was short-listed for the Booker Prize for Fiction in 1999. Ms. Soueif is also a political and cultural commentator. A collection of her essays, Mezzaterra: Fragments from the Common Ground, was published in 2004. Her translation (from Arabic to English) of Mourid Barghouti's I Saw Ramallah also came out in 2004. She lives with her children in London and Cairo.

Ulvija Tanovic´ was born in 1980 in Sarajevo. Her translations of prose and poetry have appeared in the literary magazines Odjek, Lica, and Diwan.

Sergio Waisman is Associate Professor of Spanish at The George Washington University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley (2000). His translations include The Absent City (Duke University Press, 2000) by the Argentine Ricardo Piglia, for which he received an NEA Translation Fellowship Award; Assumed Name by Ricardo Piglia (Latin American Literary Review Press, 1995); Dreams and Realities: Selected Fiction by the Argentine Juana Manuela Gorriti (Oxford University Press, Library of Latin America, 2003); and Juan de la Rosa by the Bolivian Nataniel Aguirre (Oxford University Press, Library of Latin America, 1998). His first book of literary criticism, Borges and Translation: The Irreverence of the Periphery, was published by Bucknell University Press in 2004. Sergio Waisman is also author of the novel Leaving (InteliBooks, 2004).